In the third 30 years after the founding of the People's Republic of China, China's manufacturing industry must "become bigger and stronger" and enter the forefront of the world's manufacturing industry. The development of basic manufacturing technology and key basic components must be placed in a more prominent position.
In March this year, "Made in China 2025" was first included in the "Government Work Report". "Strengthening the foundation" as an important principle for the development of a manufacturing power in the future was first mentioned at the national level and attracted much attention. The first 30 years after the founding of New China and the second 30 years after the reform and opening up, China's manufacturing industry has always followed the path of "complete machine-driven parts and components", which has promoted China's manufacturing industry "from scratch" "Development from small to large", but under the guidance of this idea, the scale has developed, and the development of basic technology and basic components has not been driven. In the third 30 years, if China's manufacturing industry is to become "bigger and stronger" and enter the forefront of the world's manufacturing industry, it must put the development of basic manufacturing technology and key basic components in a more prominent position.
The basic components of China's high-end equipment are often controlled by people
In 2014, the output value of China's manufacturing industry ranked first in the world for 5 consecutive years, and the output of most products ranked first in the world. The super-large, super-weight, super-wide, and super-high major technical equipments have been developed, encouraging the confidence of the Chinese people, but super-fine and ultra-micro products have always plagued China's equipment manufacturing industry. 支撑 乏力、发展不均衡；通过“举国之力”实现的重大技术装备的突破多是单机，无法实现全产业链布局。 For a long time, the development of China's equipment manufacturing industry has a strong foreign “implantation”, insufficient independent basic research, weak underlying technology and supporting industries' basic technical support , and uneven development; most of the major technological equipment breakthroughs achieved through the “power of the country” are A single machine cannot achieve the entire industrial chain layout. A low-density valve and an uneven welding seam have brought disastrous consequences to people's production and life.
When we take apart the equipment that we are proud of, the more problems we find, the more we disassemble. 运动 部件，如阀门、伺服电机、发动机、减速机、自动变速箱几乎全部依赖进口。 Taking industrial robots as an example, RV reducers for joints of robots are over 90% monopolized by Teijin Seiki. Some people say that the Japanese say that kneeling, few robots in the world can stand ... Now, the basis of high-end equipment in China Parts, especially moving parts, such as valves, servo motors, engines, reducers, and automatic gearboxes are almost all imported. Most of the products we can produce are still parts, which ultimately leads to the price of our equipment being sold according to the weight of the machine, the profit of the product will be squeezed by the price of raw materials, and the bargaining power of products lacking technological innovation is weak and often controlled by others.
At the beginning of this century, the country changed the import of "parts and components are not tax-exempt, and the whole machine is exempt from taxation" to "parts and components are exempt from tax, and the whole machine is not exempt from tax." The impact of the product. When we want to develop key basic components today, we can hardly find a supporting enterprise that can undertake national key tasks.
In the 1950s, Japan vigorously developed the manufacturing industry and began to follow the development strategy of "machine-driven components". However, in the 1960s, they felt that this path was contrary to the development law of the industry itself, so they changed to strong Support basic technology and basic components, starting from the bottom. So far, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan has to support more than 200 basic technologies each year to support the development of Japanese manufacturing.
At present, many large companies in the equipment manufacturing industry in Europe, Japan, and the United States have gradually extended from the extractive industry to the smelting industry, and then gradually evolved into metal product manufacturing. Finally, they have become key equipment manufacturers and complete machine manufacturers. This natural evolution of the industrial chain makes equipment manufacturing companies have a solid foundation and a “long” internal force. Even very general products can inject long-term accumulated experience and technology, and finally manufacture high-end products.
In recent years, Japan still has a number of "monster-level" longevity companies (about 3,000) and a group of experienced artisans in the key parts field. Japan still holds absolute technological advantages in the global electronics, materials and other technology-intensive industries. Not Japan's "electric rice cooker" and "toilet cover" in our eyes, but the control components and cutting-edge technological strength of the raw material industry hidden behind these consumer goods. Germany has also relied on its thousands of invisible champions in the development of parts to withstand the impact of the international financial crisis and strengthen the international competitiveness of its manufacturing industry.
Developed countries rely on their own technology and capital advantages to firmly control key components and technologies that are at the core of the global industrial chain. This has a profound impact on the development of China's equipment manufacturing industry. One is to control the production rhythm of China's own products, and it is difficult to guarantee industrial safety. For example, the Japanese earthquake almost caused some Chinese machine manufacturing companies to stop production. Another example is that foreign investors can deduce the output of China's defense products based on the key component parameters of the commissioned processing. Second, product profits are transmitted to foreign countries along the component industry chain. For example, in the fierce competition in the automobile market, some foreign investors have proposed price reductions, but the Chinese side does not agree, because the Chinese side can only share profits in the final vehicle sales, and foreign investors have already made a lot of money on key components. The third is to control the safety and reliability of the product. Such as the machine tool industry, the foreign reliability can reach up to 5,000 hours without failure, with an average of 2,000 hours, and the average hour between our products and foreign countries is still a certain gap. 主机 配套要求。 The main reason for the lag in the development of key parts and components for the machine tool industry is that domestically produced functional components cannot meet the host's supporting requirements in terms of variety, quantity, and grade .
The state should encourage enterprises to play
Innovation across the value chain
At present, there is not much time for us to catch up. In recent years, new laws in the development of manufacturing have hindered the catch-up of domestic basic parts and components. For example, the trend of high integration of information technology and traditional manufacturing is becoming increasingly apparent, and the trend of modularization of modern manufacturing is becoming increasingly apparent. The electronicization of parts makes parts more integrated and "black boxed." Faced with this trend, traditional imitation methods have failed and reverse engineering has become increasingly difficult. Tomorrow's companies must have a "forward development" ability to better understand the internal mechanisms of the product operation process and accept more complex design strategies. And this kind of positive design ability must be the result of the accumulation of long-term experience and the coordinated development of the entire industry chain.
The state should encourage some companies with competitive advantages to take advantage of full-value chain innovation. It is necessary to establish a stable contract relationship between upstream and downstream enterprises, to achieve common denomination, and to develop together. Chinese companies have not yet realized the importance and urgency of establishing such a full value chain system. With the increasing pressure on the environment and safety, and the development of intelligent and green products, China's complete machine companies have been transformed and upgraded once, and a large number of small and medium suppliers are facing a life and death decision. For example, a well-known air-conditioning company, in order to improve product intelligence, held more than 60 supplier conferences, forcing suppliers to improve the informationization of parts, otherwise they will be eliminated. On the positive side, the transformation and upgrading of component companies are forced; on the negative side, Chinese suppliers may be replaced by foreign investors, which makes the overall development of the industry face a crisis of hollow parts and components. For example, the US automobile market in the 1950s and 1960s has been dominated by local auto companies, but because local companies have not responded to the increase in emissions standards in a timely manner, it has provided huge space for Japanese cars to enter the US market.
In the future, we must establish a new manufacturing development model. Achieving the transition from a "top-down" management model to a "bottom-up" open collaborative governance model, giving priority to the development of basic technologies, common technologies and materials, and key components; building a manufacturing innovation system with enterprises as the mainstay, Give full play to the bottom-level wisdom and experience of enterprises in innovation; actively promote small and medium-sized enterprises to jointly develop and develop special products customized for users; and gradually form supporting industries such as basic technology and key basic components to support the sustainable and healthy manufacturing industry New pattern of steady development. "Made in China 2025" has given the answer.